The abstract is page iii, unnumbered; if there is a second page, it is page iv, and a number appears on the page. The abstract is a concise, carefully composed summary of the contents of the thesis or dissertation. In the abstract, the author defines the problem, describes the research method or design, and reports the results and conclusions. No diagrams, illustrations, subheadings, or citations appear in the abstract. The abstract is limited to 350 words (approximately one and one-half pages double-spaced). A copy of the abstract of all doctoral candidates is published in Dissertation Abstracts International.
The word ABSTRACT is placed 2 inches from the top of the page in all capital letters. Following a heading space (larger than a double space; see Glossary for definition), the abstract text begins, with the first line indented the same size space as for the paragraphs in the remainder of the manuscript. The text of the abstract must be double-spaced.
If a manuscript is written in a foreign language, the abstract is in the same language, but an English version (or translation) of the abstract must precede the foreign language abstract. The two abstracts are listed as one in the table of contents. The first page of each version is unnumbered but counted. If there is a second page to each version of the abstract, the page number (lower-case Roman numeral) is centered between the left and right margin and between the bottom margin and the bottom edge of the page.