Tables and Figures

A table is a compilation of data in columns or rows (tabular form). A figure is a visual or graphic presentation or illustration. Photographs, maps, diagrams, plates, or schematic presentations all are figures. Tables and figures must be referred to by number in the text prior to their appearance. The expressions “the following table/figure” or “the table/figure below” may not be used.

Table and figure order
Tables and figures also must be referenced in numerical order (i.e., Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, not Table 1, Table 3, Table 2). Once the table/figure has been referred to, it can be mentioned again out of its numerical order (e.g., it would be perfectly appropriate at this point in the handbook to refer to Figure 2.1 because it has been mentioned previously. It is not appropriate to refer to Figure 2.11, however, because Figure 2.10 has not been mentioned yet).  Each table and figure must be mentioned in the text.  Each figure or table appears only once; a figure or table cannot be used twice. Refer to previous tables and/or figures if relevant.

Table and figure placement
A large table or figure is placed by itself on the page, centered within the thesis margins. Although it is not necessary for large tables or figures to be centered precisely between the top and bottom margins of the paper, tables and figures should be placed so that they look balanced on the page. Full-page tables or figures must be placed on the page immediately following the textual reference.

The easiest method of dealing with tables or figures is to place them on a separate page without text or, if the textual references occur closely together, to group two or more smaller items together on a page without text. If two or more items are placed on a page, they must be separated by a heading space. The page then appears after the last item on it has been mentioned in the text. The first item on the page must have been referenced in the text no more than 3 pages prior to its placement.

Tables or figures may appear on a page with text (see Figure 2.10) if (a) they are first referenced in the text; (b) they begin or end the page; and (c) at least six consecutive lines of text accompany the table or figure. A figure or table is never placed in the middle of a page between two paragraphs. In addition, when a table or figure is placed on a page with text, it must be separated from the text by a heading space. A table or figure requiring more than one page may not be placed on a page with text. When a table or figure continues to a second page, the number and the word “continued” are placed above the table or below the figure. On continued tables, column heads should also be repeated.

Alternatively, tables and figures may be placed at the end of the chapter. They are placed in the order in which they are referenced, or they may be grouped: all figures followed by all tables (or vice versa). If this option is selected, it must be used for all chapters. All tables and figures must be referenced in order in the text, and all must have

an accompanying title or caption. In other words, a list of titles or captions may not be placed prior to the tables and figures, as is common in some journal submission formats.

Figure numbering and captions
All figures must be numbered consecutively (1, 2, 3 . . .) throughout the manuscript and appendices or numbered locally with decimals (1.1, 1.2 . . . 3.1 . . . A.1) by chapter. If figures are numbered locally with decimals, the main headings of the manuscript must be numbered with Arabic numerals. Figures cannot be numbered by subsection (within subheadings). The number and caption are placed below the figure within the thesis margins (note that this is different from tables, where the caption is placed above). A figure with parts needs a general caption covering all parts; then an explanation of individual parts follows. Parts must be labeled (a, b, c, d). Figure captions must be in one consistent format throughout the manuscript. All captions for figures must have no space between lines. If there are super- or subscript numbers in the figure captions, however, a double space between lines may be used. All figure captions must be in the same font style and size as the text. Print within a figure may be no smaller than 2 millimeters.

Table numbering and titles
Tables also are numbered consecutively (1, 2, 3 . . .) throughout the manuscript and appendices or numbered locally with decimals (1.1, 1.2 . . . 3.1 . . . A.1) by chapter. Tables cannot be numbered by subsection (within subheadings). The number and title of each table is placed above the table (note that this is different from figures, where the caption is placed below). Table titles may have a double space or no extra space between lines, but the spacing should be consistent throughout the manuscript. The longest line of the title should not exceed the width of the table. One consistent format must be used throughout. All table titles must be in the same font style and size as the text. Table titles are separated from the table by a double space. Regardless of the style guide selected, there are solid, horizontal lines spanning the data presented, below the title, after the column headings, and at the end of the table (see Figure 2.11). Generally, vertical lines are not necessary in a table. Tables and figures should not be enclosed in thick-lined boxes. Spacing between entries in a table is dependent on the best method of presenting the material. When a table continues to a second page, the table number and the word “continued” are placed above column headers before the table continues. Print within a table may be no smaller than 2 millimeters.

Local numbering
If tables and figures are numbered locally with decimals (i.e., within each main heading), the first table or figure within the first main heading is given the number 1.1, the second 1.2, and so on. If local numbering is used for figures, it also is used for tables. If local numbering is used, the main headings of the manuscript must be numbered with Arabic (1, 2, 3) numerals. Tables or figures in the appendix of a manuscript numbered locally are numbered A.1, A.2, and so on.

Landscape (broadside) placement
Tables and figures may be landscaped or placed broadside (i.e., running the long way on the page) if necessary. In this case, the top of the figure or the table title is placed at the left 1 1/4-inch margin. For a landscaped table or figure, the title or caption is also landscaped (see Figure 2.11) if the title or caption is on the same page as the table or figure. If the title or caption to a full-page landscaped table or figure is on a separate page, however, the title or caption is placed running the width of the page in the usual manner.

Page number placement
Page numbers are placed in the upper right corner on all pages with figures or tables even if the item is placed broadside on the page. Page numbers throughout should be placed in the same position.

Reductions
Tables and figures may be reduced to fit within the thesis margins, but the title or caption must be the same size print as the rest of the manuscript. Print size in a reduced table or figure may be no smaller than 2 millimeters.

Oversize tables and figures
Oversize tables and figures can be reproduced electronically, but the print may not be readable. Therefore, two hard copies of any oversize table or figure are required: one to be submitted to the Thesis Office to be forwarded to Special Collections in the Marriott Library and one the student submits to his or her department.

 

Part-title pages
A long table title or a long figure caption may be placed on a part-title page preceding the item if the table or figure is so large that the caption or title cannot be accommodated on the page. When a part-title page is used, the caption or title begins at or slightly above mid-page (depending on length) and has no space between lines. (A double space between lines may be used if there are super- or subscript numbers in the caption or title.)

If part-title pages are used for titles or captions, the pages are counted and numbered in sequence with the manuscript. Page numbers appear in the upper right corner in the same position as page numbers in the text. The page number that is listed in the List of Tables or List of Figures is the number of the part-title page.

 

Equations
Format of equations is dictated by the style guide the student is following. Short equations are centered within the thesis margins. All equations are set off from preceding and following text by uniform and consistent spacing (no greater than a heading space).

In general, equations should be numbered at the right margin of the manuscript with the number either in brackets or parentheses. Equations may be numbered consecutively or locally with decimals. If they are locally numbered, the main headings of the manuscript must be numbered with Arabic numerals. Local numbering of equations never exceeds one decimal place (i.e., equations are never numbered according to the number assigned to a subheading). Equation numbers must be aligned with each other throughout the manuscript.