Footnote and Reference Citations

Whether a student uses a footnote or a reference citation system depends upon the discipline. The format of footnotes or reference citations should adhere to the format specified in the department-approved style manual the student has selected. Footnotes must adhere to the same margins as the rest of the text. Font should be a minimum of 2 millimeters.

If a number reference citation system is employed, numbers in the text may be superscript, in brackets, or in parentheses on the line of text depending on the style guide used. Superscript numbers always are placed outside all punctuation marks; if more than one reference is cited at a time, the numbers are separated by commas (e.g., many6,7,10−12agree with the findings of Einstein.4). Numbers in brackets or parentheses on the line of text are placed inside or outside punctuation depending on the style guide followed. A comprehensive reference list in numerical order is placed at the end of the manuscript or at the end of each chapter.

Note that the Latin term “et al.” stands for “et alii” (and others). “Et” is not an abbreviation; it is never followed by a period. “Al.,” however, is an abbreviation and is followed by a period. The style guide dictates whether “et al.” is italicized.

Spacing of footnotes and endnotes

Whether footnotes appear at the foot of the pages on which they occur or as notes at the end of each chapter or titled section (endnotes), they must have no space between lines within each entry and a double space between entries. If print quality is clear, having no extra space between entries may be acceptable. Notes at the end of each chapter begin with a new page of text. The word “Notes” or “Endnotes” should appear on the page listing them, 1 inch from the top edge of the page in the same form as other first-level subheadings in the manuscript. No space occurs between lines within each entry and a double space is placed between entries. Notes are not placed at the end of the manuscript. They are more accessible at the end of each chapter or at the foot of the page. In case of error, many notes would have to be renumbered if all were placed at the end of the manuscript. Notes (endnotes) must be listed in the table of contents as a first-level subheading.

Placement of footnotes

Footnotes placed at the bottom of the page appear in numerical order. If multiple references occur on the same page of text, all the notes referred to must begin on the same page as the reference. In the case of lengthy footnotes, what will not fit above the bottom 1-inch margin should be carried over to the area reserved for footnotes on the following page.

Footnotes are separated from the text by a solid 20-space line. This line does not extend into the left margin. The first line of the note begins a double space below the solid line and is indented the same number of spaces as paragraphs in the text. The numeral is raised above the line and the note is not followed by a period or a space before the note begins (see example at foot of page). Footnote entries have a double or single space between entries.