References or Selected Bibliography

The style of the references or selected bibliography must be patterned after the department-approved style guide the student has selected from the list of department-approved journals and manuals of style on The Graduate School website (see also Chapter 3 of this handbook). It is the students’ responsibility to inform the Thesis Office of which style guide she or he followed. Failure to indicate which style guide was followed may lead to the student’s submission being returned unread. Please also note that software programs, such as EndNote, do not necessarily follow the style guide correctly. It is the student’s responsibility to make sure that all references are correct according to her or his selected style guide.

The list of references is placed at the end of the manuscript in numerical or alphabetical order depending upon the system used. Scientific papers usually do not list any material in the references that has not been referenced in the text. The reference section is generally entitled “REFERENCES,” or less commonly, “LITERATURE CITED.” The references may be placed at the end of each chapter or titled section in manuscripts composed of a series of articles previously published or accepted for publication. In this case, the subtitle “references” is treated as a first-level subheading.

Writers in the humanities often consult background material that is not directly cited but is included in a bibliography. The compilation of direct and indirect reference material is entitled “SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY.”

The first page of the references or selected bibliography begins 2 inches from the top of the page with the main heading typed in all capital letters. A heading space follows. Entries are single-spaced within an entry and double spaced between each entry. The reference section is listed as the last item in the table of contents (unless a vita is used).

If a separate part-title page is used with the reference section, the first reference begins 1 inch below the top of the page and no main heading is used on the page with the references (see “Parts Composed of Related Chapters”).

Citation of Web-accessed Information

Web citations must include name of author, title of publication, and date of publication. These items are formatted according to the style guide selected. In addition, the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) must be provided in the following form:

  • protocol or access-mode identifier (i.e., http, https), followed by a colon and two forward slashes (e.g., http://)
  • host name, always typed in lower case (e.g.,
  • pathway to the document, including file names, typed exactly as it appears, including upper and lower case and punctuation
  • A sample URL is: URLs may be broken only after a slash or double slash or after a period. Never insert a hyphen, and never break a URL at a hyphen.